Thursday, September 19, 2019

Ghana and the Social Contract :: aristotle, family, values, communities

Aristotle rightly said that the family is the building block of the society and each family has its common values and preferences. Even though individuals may belong to the same family and society, they would have diverse opinions on what the society should be and where it should be headed. Even in the face of shared values by a society, there is another discriminant of individual’s value systems- their experiences. These experiences make them masters of themselves because they assume that their experiences are unique to only them and therefore these views should be recognized as valid. James O’Toole categorised the value systems of individuals under the four major themes of community, efficiency, liberty and equality (O'Toole, 1995). This paper reflects on the good society and its constituents in the light of these four themes. O’Toole believes these four are the great themes of political argument which face trade-offs with each other and have an inverse relati onship with each other, that is, an increase in one causes a decrease of the other. Thomas Jefferson considered the good society to be a society in which everyone was happy and I agree with that because happiness is the end product of various favourable factors in a person’s life. Furthermore, I am of the same view that a good society is one that ensures the rights of every member of the society. This is because every human being is innately self-seeking and this is evident in a child’s selfish efforts to attain his or her wants in spite of being young in knowledge of the society. Even though humans can be selfless, their basic needs should at least be met because the satisfaction of their needs sustain them and ensures their contentment. To ensure basic rights of individuals, it is essential to know which value they hold dear, whose fulfilment would bring them long lasting pleasure, thus, leading into the exploration of these major core values. Liberty is concerned with freedom of the individual in three spheres, which are in politics, religion and economics and this value births individuals who are known as libertarians. The modern Libertarian principle that these individuals operate by is that â€Å"the equal right to freedom constitutes the full extent of human equality; all other equalities are unwarranted and unjust† (O'Toole, 1995). Thus, libertarians support every kind of liberty which includes economic liberty hence, capitalism. As such they believe that government interventions in the free market stifle economic progress.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Woodrow Wilson vs the Senate Essay example -- essays papers

woodrow wilson vs the senate â€Å"The Only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing† They say time is a great teacher. How true. History has taught us that peace must be kept at all costs. At the end of World War 1, the common goal between the victorious nations throughout the world was to declare peace. The leading statesmen of these triumphant nations met in Paris to draw up the Treaty of Versailles, which would decide the fate of the central powers. Woodrow Wilson, the American President, created fourteen points as the basis for peace negotiations. Among these fourteen points was the most controversial and yet the most important to President Wilson, the League of Nations. President Wilson developed its charter and soon died from exhaustion after his own country, the United States, refused to ratify it in the senate. American policy had temporarily shifted from isolationism to internationalism because of the war, however the United States senate was not ready for the responsibilities of a world peacekeeper. Due to a republican majority, senators Henry Cabot Lodge, Alfred Beveridge, and other isolationist senators helped to sway the rest of congress to deny the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles. These senators believed that by entangling themselves in an international organization they would create new alliances, which would commit them to go to war. Also, Lodge felt that the League of Nations would be able to control the United States military by limiting the number of armaments that a nation could have. Due to Article 10 and the limitations on armaments, which the senators objected, and the inability to compromise on the deadlock between the Pr esident’s beliefs and the Senators, led to the failure to ratify the Treaty of Versailles. These factors lead the senate to their decision, which left the world vulnerable for another war and the eventual demise of the League of Nations. The Fourteen Points were one of Wilson’s major accomplishments while he held office. Wilson introduced this theory on what he believed were successful measures in not only preventing Germany from beginning a war again, but to prevent all wars. After all World War One was the war to end all wars. These Fourteen Points included proposals such as freedom of the seas, general disarmament, the removal of international trade barriers, impartia... ...n and his political rival were stubborn and stayed in a deadlock. Therefore, the treaty failed to be ratified. Wilson died on February 3, 1924 and along with him died the United States involvement in the League of Nations and the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles. Out of the Fourteen Points came Wilson’s most important achievement at Versailles, the creation of an international peacekeeping organization, the League of Nations. Woodrow Wilson did all that he could to gain the support of his people for the acceptance of the League of Nations in the Treaty of Versailles. He believed that the idea of collective security was the key to keeping world peace. Yet, Wilson was ahead of his time. America was not ready to switch from an isolationist state to an international peacekeeper. The American senate wanted to make changes to the treaty in order to secure their international stand on domestic issues. But Wilson was unwilling to compromise on securing peace for mankind, so Wilson gained nothing. The ratification of the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations would fail, however the idea still burned on, and the United Nations would be formed after the Second World War.

Weight Issues In Wrestling :: Health Nutrition Essays

Weight Issues In Wrestling What do Billy Saylor (19 years old) at Campbell University in North Carolina, Joseph LaRosa (22) at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, and Jeff Reese (21) at the University of Michigan all have in common? They are all dead now, victims of one of the ghastly secrets of college wrestling. All three boys were engaged in dehydrating practices trying to lose weight in order to qualify for their first college-wrestling matches. Reese was trying to lose 17 pounds so that he could wrestle in the 150-pound weight class. His two-hour workout in a rubber suit in a 92-degree room cost him his life. He died of rhabdomyolysis -- a cellular breakdown of skeletal muscle under conditions of excessive exercise, which, combined with dehydration, resulted in kidney failure and heart malfunction (Iowa Gazette - December 22, 1997). LaRosa was also riding a stationary bike and wearing a rubber suit when he collapsed and died. Saylor was riding a stationary bike in a predawn workout when he suffered a h eart attack (Washington Post - January 14, 1998). Physicians are of the consensus that excessive dehydration as a means to lose weight can harm bodily functions, possibly leading to kidney failure, heat stroke or a heart attack. Why then do the wrestlers engage in these dangerous activities? Legendary University of Iowa wrestling coach Dan Gable had this to say in an ESPN report: "They (wrestlers) think they are indestructible. But I’ll tell you what -- those three athletes thought they were indestructible, too. And they aren’t around to talk about it."Wrestlers believe that it is mind over body; they can accomplish anything and nothing bad will ever happen to them. So, LaRosa’s behavior on that fatal day in November wasn’t anything out of the ordinary for many college wrestlers. He was wearing sweats over a rubber suit and riding a stationary bike in a steam-filled shower room. His body temperature reached 108 degrees. He was trying to make weight for his match the next day, and wrestling’s rules did little to discourage such dangerous practices. The logic in wrestling is to make the lowest weight you can in the weigh-ins, which are 24 hours before the match. Then you can replenish and rehydrate your body over the course of the 24 hours between the weigh-in and the match. This will give you an advantage in the competition b ecause you really will be bigger and stronger then most of the wrestlers in that lower weight class.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Codes of Laws

Codes of laws After reading material chapter 1 of (Identifying and exploring security essentials) it says the following about the laws of where and when each law originated. The different laws include: The Code of Hammurabi, Draco’s law, Law of the Twelve Tables, Justinian Code, Magna Carta, and Statue of Westminster. The Babylonian Code of Hammurabi was developed by King Hammurabi in 1750 B. C. This Code had 282 clauses that regulated many issues that include different obligations and rights, to theft and debt. Barbaric punishments were used when the laws of this code were broken.I think many people believe this Code is more of revenge toward the offender, rather than an appropriate punishment but some people also believe that revenge is the same thing as punishment. Draco’s Laws (621 BC) were the first laws written in Greece and introduced the notion that the state is to punish a person. Death was the penalty for many offenses which is why it is names after draconian; which describes an unusually harsh law. The laws of the twelve tables (450 BC) were written by ten Roman men to govern the Romans, which formed the foundation of modern public and private law.There were originally ten laws and two statutes were added later. This organized a way so crime could be prosecuted publicly and victims could seek compensation. Roman law was that the law must be written; judges alone were not permitted to interpret alone. The Justinian Code (AD 529) was named after an Emperor of Byzantium, Justinian, whom codified a series of books called, â€Å"Corpus Juris Civilis†. He had an impact on modern concept of justice. This formed the foundation of civil law; one of the two main legal systems.In Westminster Abbey AnalysisMagna Carta was created by King John (1199-1216) in 1215 which was the high point of the Middle Ages. Magna Carta established English â€Å"Due Process†. There were 61 clauses; the most important is considered to be: â€Å"No freem an shall be captured or imprisoned†¦except by lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of his land†. Due Process became a foundation for the modern US justice system. Statute of Westminster (1285) was created in England by King Edward which forced citizens to become involved in crime prevention and apprehension.There were 3 practical measures: (1) the watch and ward, (2) hue and cry, (3) assize of arms. Selected night watch men or bailiffs were put to maintain order and prevent crime according to the watch and ward. A hue and cry is by command of the constable to require every citizen to pursue a felon if a felony had been committed. To establish the hue and cry, assize of arms required all males between 15 and 60 to keep a weapon in their home. All of the laws that were created and set in the past have molded what our country has established today.It has been set forth since the earliest of the laws that all men and women are created equally and if a crime is committed then there are definite consequences. Without the history of law, there would be no foundation, no reasoning. The need for private and public security is steadily increasing and crime and technology increase. The smarted we become, the more we endanger ourselves in a way. There will always be all types of crime, so protecting us all the way around is being proactive. References Clifford, M. (2004). Identifying and exploring security essentials. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Embedding and Extracting of Secret Data

BLOCK DIAGRAM 3.1 TRANSMITTER Section In Transmitter subdivision there are 3 parts: com/aaimagestore/essays/1863648.001.png"/> Figure 1 The block diagram Transmitter subdivision In Transmitter subdivision there are 3 parts:Input screen ImagesEncoder subdivisionOutput Stego ImageThe screen image used for the proposed strategy to be taken as an input Original screen Image which is used for implanting secret informations in it. Encoder unit is composed of Generation map and secret keys. Encoder determines whether it is smooth country or edged country depending upon the threshold value. In smooth country little figure of spots implanting compared to inch country. Finally at the sender subdivision Stego image is generated which is a combination of secret keys and screen images. 3.2 RECEIVER Section Figure 2 The block diagram Receiver subdivision In Receiver subdivision there are 3 parts:Input Stego ImagesDecoder subdivisionOutput Cover ImageThe Stego Image is taken as an input to the receiver side. The Stego image is decoded right by utilizing secret keys and coevals map to obtain the screen image. The secret keys used in both the sender and receiver side are same. Pixels in the border countries are embedded by Q-bit of secret informations with a larger value of Q than that of pels placed in smooth countries. Chapter 4 PROJECT METHODOLOGY 4.1The proposed adaptative strategy There are five secret keys viz. R1, R2, v1, v2, T and 1 6 v1, 1 6 v2, ( v1 + v2 ) & lt ; 6. The mean different values of a four-pixel block are utilized to sort the block as a smooth country or an edge country. The scope of mean different value is partitioned into two different degrees, smooth degree and border degree. Q-bit of the secret information is embedded in Pixels located in the block, where Q is decided by the degree in which the norm different values belong to. In the implanting procedure of secret informations, harmonizing to the secret keys v1 and v2, the smooth degree will utilize lower value v1 while the border degree uses greater value v1 + v2. The information embedding procedure is given in Section 2.1.1 and the extracting stage is described in Section 2.1.2. 2.1.1. The implanting stage in proposed adaptative method The original image is separated into non- overlapping four-pixel blocks. For each block, there are four neighboring pels ‘Pi, j’ ; ‘Pi, j+1’ ; ‘Pi+1, j’ ; ’ Pi+1, j+1’ and their corresponding grey values are y0, y1, y2, y3, severally. The undermentioned flow chart shows elaborate working of implanting stage in proposed adaptative strategy The elaborate embedding stairss are as follows. Measure 1: Generate Two sets Kr and Kc utilizing threshold Hr ( R1, v1 ) and Hc ( R2, v2 ) , severally. Via sets Kr and Kc form a discrepancy of a Cartesian merchandise viz. , Kr _ Kc. Set Kr _ Kc generates an ordered set of combinations of Kr and Kc with 2v1 †¢ 2v2 = 2v1+v2 elements ( Eq. ( 1 ) ) . Kr*Kc = { Kria†Ã¢â‚¬Å¡a†Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Kcja†Ã¢â‚¬Å¡ , Kri ˆ Kr, Kcj ˆ Kc, i=1,2,3†¦ .} =1, 2, 3†¦ ...†¦ ( 1 ) Measure 2: Calculate the mean difference value D, Which is determined by †¦ . ( 2 ) Where ymin is ymin=min { y0, y1, y2, y3 } Measure 3: Using Threshold T and D find smooth block, Edge block and mistake block. i.e. a ) If D & lt ; =T, D belongs to Smooth block. B ) If D & gt ; T, D belongs to Edge block. degree Celsius ) If D & lt ; =T and ( ymax- ymin ) & gt ; 2*T+2, D belongs to Error block. Measure 4: Repeat measure 3 for full image Measure 5: Capacity= ( ( border block* ( v1+v2 ) ) + smooth block*v1 ) ) *4 Measure 6: For smooth block obtain I utilizing Kr & A ; Secret informations and find‘d’ . For border block: – d=? ( i-1 ) +j†¦ . ( 3 ) For smooth block: – d= I†¦ .. ( 4 ) Measure 7: Create pel group utilizing ‘n=2^Q’ . degree Fahrenheit ( Lolo ) =yi mod n+1 †¦ . ( 5 ) Measure 8: Using pel group embed the Secrets spots Measure 9: If No Of Secret Data=Capacity, travel to step 10 else measure 6. Measure 10: Apply mistake cut downing process for minimising perceptual deformation between screen & A ; stego image. Example: – Assume we have a block part with 4 neighboring pel values ( 210, 237, 198, and 183 ) , and the secret information informations for implanting in original image are ‘10010101110000111010’ . Suppose v1 = 2, v2 = 3, R1 = 257, R2 = 36 and T = 25. Here first coevals map Kr= { 000,100,010,011,001,110,101,111 } is created by utilizing Hr ( R1, V1 ) i.e. Hr ( 257,2 ) and 2nd coevals map Kc = { 01,11,10,00 } is generated by utilizing Hc ( R2, V2 ) i.e. Hc ( 36,3 ) , after that by utilizing equation ( 2 ) calculate the mean different value ‘D’ = ( 96/3 ) =32 which is greater than threshold value T, so the present block has been positioned in border country and is embedded Q = 5 Numberss of spots of secret informations in each peculiar pel. Hence, sum entire 4 * 5 = 20 spots are embedded in given block. Here for first pel into the block, e.g. y0 = 210, the initial part of secret informations ’10010’ is split into the two sub-strings ‘100’ and ‘10’ . Then, we get one = 2 and j = 3 because the 6th constituent of Kr is ‘100’ and 4th constituent of Kc is ‘10’ . Harmonizing to equation ( 3 ) , we compute‘d’ utilizing 8 * ( 2–1 ) +3 = 11. After that, the pel group ‘G’ is formed for the pel value y0 = 210 with n == 32. Here g 19= 210. Finally, the stego-pixel y`0 can be achieve from the dth component of G, i.e. y`0 = g24 = 202. Likewise we can happen leftover stego-pixel y`1 = 249, y`2 = 201, y`3 = 185 and therefore stego-block ( 202,249,201,185 ) is achieved. After using readjusts process we get concluding stego-block ( 202, 241, 201, and 185 ) . 2.1.2The pull outing stage in proposed adaptative strategy Like the implanting procedure, Partition the stego-image into four-pixel blocks. The undermentioned flow chart for pull outing informations from stego image in proposed adaptative strategy explains elaborate working flow The undermentioned stairss are executed to pull out the secret information. Measure 1: Input signal Stego Image, Secret keys R1, R2, v1, v2, T Step2: Generate Kr & A ; Kc Using R1, R2, v1, v2 Step3: Initialize i=0 & A ; j=0 Measure 4: if I & lt ; =M & A ; j & lt ; =N, travel to step 5 else halt. Measure 5: Calculate Average Diff ‘D’ utilizing combining weight. ( 2 ) Measure 6: Exploitation Threshold ‘T’ and ‘D’ find smooth block, Edge block and mistake block. i.e. a ) If D & lt ; =T, D belongs to Smooth block. B ) If D & gt ; T, D belongs to Edge block. degree Celsius ) If D & lt ; =T and ( ymax-ymin ) & gt ; 2*T+2, D belongs to Error block. Measure 7: Create pel group utilizing n=2^Q and degree Fahrenheit ( Lolo ) =yi mod n+1 Measure 8: Determine place information‘d’ . Measure 9: From‘d’ extract secret informations. Example For case, we extract the implanting illustration ( 151, 88, 193, and 133 ) , which is shown in the before subdivision. Assume v1 = 2, v2 = 3, R1 = 257, R2 = 36 and T = 25. The coevals map Kr = { 001, 110,101,010,111,100,011,000 } is formed by utilizing Hr ( R1, V1 ) i.e. Hr ( 257,2 ) and Kc = { 00,10,11,01 } by utilizing Hc ( R2, V2 ) i.e. ( 36,3 ) are produced. Here D & gt ; T, hence this block is placed in edge country and hence Q = v1 + v2 = 3 + 2 = 5 spots have embedded into each Pixel in the block. In present block sum, 4 †¢ 5 = 20 spots are embedded. Let us see 3rd pel into the block ( e.g. y â€Å" 2 = 202 ) . The pel group G is created for value 202 via Eq. ( 5 ) With n = 32. We create the variant Cartesian merchandise Kr _ Kc, which is value 202 with n = 22+3= 32. The place of stego-pixel 202 in G is 1, because vitamin D = ( 202 mod 32 ) + 1 = 3. The piece of binary secret informations ‘00001’ can be extracted because ‘00001’ is the 3rd constituent of Kr _ Kc. In the same manner, has extracted the secret information subdivision ‘10010’ for Yâ€Å"0, ‘10111’ for Yâ€Å"1and ‘11010’ for Yâ€Å"3. Finally we achieve ‘10010101110000111010’ which is the similar secret information informations in the implanting illustration of before subdivision.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Audie Murphy

World War two was the greatest of all wars ever fought on this earth, with millions of men from every corner of the planet fighting for the cause that they felt right. Out of all of these men from this war and arguably any war Audio Murphy is the greatest. Born the seventh out of twelve children to a sharecropping family on June 20th 1924, all Audio wanted to do in life was â€Å"to be somebody' (Gale). To do this Audio had to fight against the odds his entire life on to his way to becoming one of America's most recognized and cherished people during and after the War.One of the reasons Audio was such an icon to the rest of America, is because at the end of the day he was Just an ordinary boy. Even before the war, at the age fifteen in 1939 Audio dropped out of school to help support his family. The year after that his father left his family making him the man of the house, only to have his mother die when he was seventeen in 1941. These events would cause most men to break but this Just drove Audio into trying to help the cause at war, to make himself somebody.At first he did not succeed in enlisting being only five foot five inches and a hundred and twelve mounds none of the branches of the armed forces would accept him. Eventually on the 30th of June 1942 the US Army accepted him, placing him in company B, 1st battalion, and 15th infantry regiment of the 3rd division. After extensive training in Africa he was in part of the invasion of Italy, after his first contact with the enemy he said â€Å"Ten seconds after the first shot was fired at me by an enemy soldier, combat was no longer glamorous, † Then later saying â€Å"But it was important, because all of a sudden I wanted very much to stay alive† (Gale).This represents very well of how America's youth, though ready felt with their first taste of war. Out of all the times that Audio went above the call in which he was asked to during his time at war, there were two instances in which he prove d to everyone that he was a hero. The first instance happened when his company made their way north the eastern border of France during â€Å"operation dragoon† (Biography). There was a hilltop dotted with German machine gun and sniper nest; he single handedly worked his way up the hill taking them out (Gale). In the midst of this his friend, Lattice Tiptop Joined him in the assault.The Germans at this point acted like they surrendered, with this Lattice stood up then was shot from the lying Germans (Biography). Seeing his friend getting shot, after being lied too, Audio went on a rampage taking out the remaining nest using the German guns and grenades (Gale). For this Audio was given the second highest award for valor, the Distinguished Service Cross, and for his next act of valor he is awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. Audio received the highest of all medals in woods in France. It all began when his B Company was ambushed by six German tanks and infantry.He then he ld position to call in artillery while his troops retreated to the wood lines safety. He then headed too tank destroyer that was already hit and mounted to 50 Caliber gun, proceeding to mow down the Germans infantry. He was exposed on three sides but with deadly accurate shots he kept off all the advancing troops. Artillery then came in with deadly effectiveness, a squad of Germans tried to sneak up on Murphy but when they were within ten yards they were taken out. He was hit in the leg but fired till the ammunition was gone, peeling back to the wood effective and drove the remaining Germans out.Audio at the end of it all saved his men and took fifty German soldiers in the conflict (Honors). After the Germans surrender to the allied forces, Audio returned home to America. He was paraded around for being a hero of war and was put on the cover of Life on July 16, 1945. After seeing this photo actor James Chaney asked Murphy if he would try a career in Hollywood. He started doing small movies and wrote a book about his stories in the European campaigns: To Hell and Back. The post war America loved this book became a national bestseller and later a movie in which he starred in (Biography).In conclusion Audio Murphy was perhaps the most import unit during the entire war. He killed two-hundred and forty enemies in the process of saving his men. He is the most decorated person in history with thirty-three medals, of them there are three Purple Hearts and French Crosses of War, a Silver Star, Distinguished Service Star, and a Congressional Medal of Honor. Through Audio Murphy's heroic acts of selflessness and by keeping his head level in horrific situations, he became one of America's most loved people during and after the war. Work Cited â€Å"Audio Murphy.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Education of women Essay

Daniel Defoe’s essay entitled â€Å"The Education of Women† was written to emphasis the value of education for women should be more than what is was. In para- graph 1 â€Å"†¦ us a civilized and a Christian country† Defoe’s target audience was for men and for those who follow the church and God. Eng- land at this time was dominantly of Christian faith and in this essay Defoe advocates more of God’s will rather than his own to establish his own credibility and moral high ground and Defoe is able to do this by raising this issue in the minds of his Christian  readership. Although there may not be too much weight behind his view on why women needed to be educated, with referencing God throughout the essay it becomes an effective reading with his target audience. He starts with his opinion then refers to God in the next sentence. This is a regular theme from start to finish and this captures his reader’s interest early on. Defoe included this rhetorical sentences in this essay and in paragraph 3 Defoe writes â€Å"the soul is placed in the body like a rough diamond, and must be polished, or the  luster of it will never appear†. His analogy is that if you don’t polish the diamond (women and educating) then they will never shine. In paragraph 3 he uses the term God in his next sentence. â€Å"If knowledge and understanding had been useless additions to the 1 Yorke sex, God Almighty would never have given them capacities; for he made nothing needless. † He states that God made women capable of learning and that none of God’s creation is unnecessary. Defoe believes women should be educated and educating them they would simply  become better wives and companions for men. As an example of this is in paragraph 5, he does not suggest learning practical subjects such as math and science but instead, he says that they should be taught† â€Å"†¦ in particular, Music and Dancing; which it would be cruelty to bar the sex of, because they are their darlings. But besides this, they should be taught languages† He also adds that they should read history books to be more ‘cultured’ so that they can â€Å".. understand the world, and to be able to know and judge of things when  they hear of them. † Defoe’s argument is that women as an equal. In paragraph 7 he writes â€Å"Women, in my observation, have little or no difference in them, but as they are or are not distin- guished by education. † Defoe summarizes in the last paragraph with this rhetorical sentence â€Å"I refer the Practice to those Happy Days (if ever they shall be) when men shall be wise enough to mend it. † Defoe implies that if man can change his views on education for women, then a woman would be educated will be seen as an equal amongst men.